Hannah Griggs, the first woman to work at the Tower of London

Trailblazing former kitchen maid is the starring of a brand-new expo celebrating the unsung heroes of an engineering masterpiece

When Dirk Bennett firstly gazed into the eyes of Hannah Griggs, he recalls that the mane literally stood up on the back of his arms.

In the faded photograph Griggs, a poor young lady born to an unmarried father in 1888 who likely began work as a kitchen maid in her early teens, is elegant and smilingly written. She is also the first girl known to have worked at Tower Bridge in London.

Bennett considers she must have worked for the bridge captain, a uniformed occupation which went with a handsome redbrick mansion complete with agencies. The labourers inside the bridge, nonetheless, would have fended for themselves down among the great machines: another reminiscence he has collected is of the smell of breakfast prepare on an cast-iron stave mingling with engine oil and the coke-burning steam boilers.

Griggs, who gave up her occupation when she married a railway fireman and later became mother to their daughter Elsie in 1915, would undoubtedly be stunned were told that her battered little photograph has now been blown up into a 12 -feet panel, attaining her the starring of a brand-new expo in the bridge museum.

The showings celebrate the previously unrecorded tales of people who worked on the bridge, including labourers, blacksmiths, engineers, clerks, night watchmen and engine drivers crucial members of the team who continued the lifting mechanism powered by steam until 1976. Her name is one of those on a stroll of notoriety bronze plaques freshly embedded in the pavement of the bridge itself.

The photograph was treasured by her granddaughter, Susan Belcher, one of hundreds of members of the public who have got in touch with the museum in the bridge to tell their tales. When Bennett, who is currently German with London roots his granddad was mayor of Bethnal Green arrived to work at the museum he found that the story of heroic building and engineering exultation had been told, but that the stories of the people who have continued the bridge running since 1894 remained in the shadows.

He “ve noticed that” many guests spoke of household communications as they proceeded round the showings, and encouraged the staff to urge them to get in touch and pass on their remembrances. Hundreds of calls have now been researched by Royal Holloway university, with tales still coming in: only three weeks ago he heard from a offspring of a labourer killed while working on the tremendous wharves which support the bridge one of ten fatalities out of the 800 people who worked on its construction.

Without the direct connections, the names of most would never have been known to the public, but a few became briefly famous: Leslie Priestley was the bridge captain in December 1952 when the organizations of the system for notifying traffic and closing the bridge before the center part hoisted neglected.

Albert Gunton, the driver of a No 78 ruby-red double-decker bus, realised what was happening and made a split-second decision. He accelerated instead of braking, and jump-start the bus across the 6ft and widening crack. Priestley, one newspaper registered, put on his overcoat and bowler hat and was inspecting the bridge within times.

Several bridge households ought to have exposed, especially among engineers and firemen: John Gass joined as foreman before the bridge actually opened, worked on until 1930, serving as chief technologist and eventually bridge captain, and was awarded the freedom of the city in 1901. Two of his children, brought up in the bridge captains mansion, followed him into working in the bridge.

Hannah Griggs succumbed aged simply 58, but by then she and William Howard had two daughters, and were living in a house in Hornchurch encouragingly called Cosy Nook. She really is one of our heroes, announces Bennett.

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ uk-news/ 2017/ apr/ 29/ hannah-griggs-the-first-woman-to-work-at-the-tower-of-london

‘I know he is alive’: wife of Taiwan activist seized by China pleads for release

Lee Ming-che has been detained by Beijing authorities amid a targeting of activists, dissidents and scholars based abroad

The wife of a Taiwanese human rights activist detained in China for over a few months without charge has vowed to take her fight for justice to the US and European Union, urging them to pressure Beijing to release him.

It have also been 40 periods since Lee Ching-yus partner, best friend and confidante suddenly faded while travelling to visit friends in Guangzhou, southern China.

Beijing, which views democratic Taiwan as a renegade district, admitted merely after 10 periods that Lee Ming-che, 42, their home communities college proletarian known for supporting human rights, had been detained for allegedly menacing national security.

He is feared to be the latest victim of an escalation in Chinas repression of rights and free speech.

It is merely through international reinforcement that we can army a country that encroaches on human rights to stop this action, Lee Ching-yu told The Guardian in her first interview with the British press. She intends to seek help in Washington DC and Brussels next month.

Under standard Chinese criminal law, Lees husband should have been charged or released on Monday, after 37 periods in custody.

Instead, her hopes of a speedy resolution were shattered on Wednesday when Chinas Taiwan affairs bureau announced that Lee was still under investigation, that his health was good, and that he has clearly explained the relevant situation to his family in a letter.

The letter, which contained scant datum, was delivered in early April by an unofficial middleman Lee Ching-yu did not know whether to trust.

It was my husbands handwriting but he made no link with me, she mentioned. He did not write that note voluntarily.

Lee, likewise 42, has striven largely alone, with the support of a few neighbourhood activists, to disclose the truth.

With little government reinforcement, she has fended off unidentified agents offering assistance through unofficial channels.

One proposed her silence and inactivity might buy her husbands freedom, or at least spare him the humiliation of a video confession. But Lee has refused to ten-strike a backroom deal.

She is defiant but the stres of her ordeal has established her visibly more gaunt and she often fights back tears. I have to keep a strong face in front of the media, but when I assure my husbands photo I get very emotional, she mentioned.

The couple met at college 20 years ago and were drawn to each other through a shared fervour for human rights.

Lee Ching-yu became a researcher at the Shin Ming-te foundation, analyzing its own history of Taiwans own gloom reporting period martial law, when thousands were disappeared. Her job both devotes her strength and haunts her. I can imagine what my husband might have gone through, she said.

Lee Ming-che preserved his human rights job low key. Supporters believe he may have been targeted after speaking openly on Chinese messaging service WeChat about Taiwanese democracy.

The values and ideas that my husband holds and spreads has not been able to be charged in any democratic or civilised country, mentioned Lee.

She are broken down describing how he had tried to help the poverty-stricken those who are relatives of Chinese activists, imprisoned for their beliefs.

At least I know my husband is alive, she mentioned. Others who disappear dont receive the same media attention and they might be in more hazard. When I realise how severe the situation in China is, its hard to stay calm.

Lee has approached the United Nations Committee on Forced disappearance for help.

Her husbands suit has been complicated by Taiwans lack of international clout and by frozen the establishment of diplomatic relations between Taipei and Beijing over Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wens refusal to endorse Chinas view that the self-governed island and mainland are part of a single Chinese nation.

Taiwans government maintains it is working behind the scenes to resolve Lees case, but neighbourhood NGOs argue they could do more.

Mrs Lee is already standing so strongwe need support from the government , is not simply to merely keep it low key, mentioned E-Ling Chiu, head of the Taiwan Association for Human Rights.

Many fear Lee may have fallen pollute of a harsh brand-new Chinese law to monitor and control foreign-funded NGOs, enforced earlier this year as part of a crackdown on civil society.

The environment for foreign and domestic human rights NGOs had become treacherous, mentioned Maya Wang an Asia researcher with Human Rights Watch.

The case of Mr Lee fits within the greater pattern of a brand-new trend of the Chinese government targeting activists, dissidents, or even scholars based abroad, she mentioned. All of these cases deserve equal press and attention.

However, Lee may also have become a pawn in internal Chinese politics by factions to report to President Xi Jinpings perceived mild approaching to Taiwan, ventured Michael Cole, a Taipei-based political analyst.

It would be difficult for Xi to back down while demonstrating strength over Taiwan, he mentioned. Equally, Tsai had to tread cautiously.

It would not serve Mr Lees interests if she came out firearms firing. Ultimately his suit is part of something thats much bigger.

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ world/ 2017/ apr/ 28/ wife-of-taiwan-activist-seized-china-pleads-for-release-lee-ming-che

A Dolls House, Part 2 review sophisticated sequel offers vibrancy and wit

Laurie Metcalf devotes a thrilling concert in a speculative follow-up to Henrik Ibsens defining 1879 masterwork

There are sofa play-acts and dinner table play-acts. Play-acts about bunks and bathtubs, armchairs and kitchen submerges. Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House, the 1879 masterwork and shocker, is a drama about a entrance. So is Lucas Hnaths A Dolls House Part 2, a brisk and brainy sequel, directed by Sam Gold, which has entered Broadway at the close of the season.

A Dolls House concluded with Nora Helmer walking out her front entrance, leaving behind her husband, children and cardboard wedlock in order to fulfill her is under an obligation herself. George Bernard Shaw described her parting gesture as the slam see round “the worlds”.

A Dolls House, Part 2, begins with that same entrance , now black and 10 ft tall, but it trades the climactic slam for a resolute knock. Those rapping knuckles? They belong to Nora( Laurie Metcalf ), who has returned to the residence of Torvald, her former partner, after a 15 -year absence.

Hnaths play is less a conventional sequel than a thought experiment inspired by the original. Fortunately, Hnath, whose formally inventive plays include Isaacs Eye and The Christians, is no intend thinker. His panoramas, typically structured as two-character discussions between Nora and Torvald( Chris Cooper ), Nora and her daughter( Condola Rashad ), Nora and her former nanny( Jayne Houdyshell ), read as answers to an interior FAQ: what would bring Nora back? How would those shes left behind receive her? Has she attained liberation? At what cost?

Provocatively, the play roles as both homage and riposte, casting a crucial eye on Noras alternatives and trying to wrestle with their consequences. The play can even be read as a forceful criticism of self-actualization, one that shows the selfishness of the to-thine-own-self approach. Though Hnath revives, Ibsens denunciation of bourgeois wedlock, he doesnt necessarily substantiate its door-slamming alternative. Torvald questions whether the braver thing might have been to stay. Emmy, freshly engaged, even is in favour of matrimonies benefits. Dont shape my craves about your craves, she tells her mother.

Perhaps this shape the play audio rather dry and intellectual. It isnt. Hnath writes fast, vibrant dialogue much of it in a salty, modern lingo and while Gold sets a few postmodern touches, he mainly pushes the actors onstage and has them talk things over with hustle and vigor. The performers are excellent, specially Metcalf, an actress who vibrates with emotive severity a bipedal tuning fork and can switch from warmth to cruelty at the turn of a heel. Her first entrance is a gripping concatenation of anticipation, anxiety, amusement , nostalgia, and probably some other things, too.

Shes a thrilling musician and she virtually attains “youre forgetting” than the play succeeds far more as a vivid and playful philosophical exert than as a character-driven drama.( Ibsen oversaw both, but thats a high bar .) Yes, Hnath offers a morsel of plot the documentation and blackmail strives, just as in the original but most audience nails will go unbitten.

This shouldnt put ticket buyers off. The plays sophisticated controversies about which is something we owe to ourselves and to each other, about how liberation can become illiberal are welcome mat enough. Step in.

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ stage/ 2017/ apr/ 27/ a-dolls-house-part-2-review-sophisticated-sequel-offers-vibrancy-and-wit

New human rights to protect against ‘mind hacking’ and brain data theft proposed

A response to advances in neurotechnology that they are able read or adjust psyche activity, new human rights would protect people from stealing, abuse and hacking

New human rights that would protect people from having their thoughts and other psyche info stolen, mistreated or hacked have been proposed by researchers.

The move is a response to the rapid advances being made with technologies that read or adjust psyche activity and which many expect to bring huge an advantage to folks lives in the coming years.

Much of the technology has been developed for hospitals to diagnose or treat medical conditions, but some of appropriate tools such as brainwave monitoring devices that allow people to play video games with their minds, or psyche stimulators that claim to boost mental concert are meeting their mode into shops.

But these and other a progress in neurotechnology create fresh the risk to privacy and personal freedom, according to Marcello Ienca, a neuroethicist at the University of Basel, and Roberto Andorno, a human rights lawyer at the University of Zurich. Writing in the publication Life Sciences, Society and Policy, the pair put forward four new human rights that are intended to preserve the psyche as the last refuge for human privacy.

The question we asked was whether our present human rights framework was well equipped to face this new tendency in neurotechnology, Ienca told the Guardian. Having reviewed the rights in place today, the pair concluded that more must be done to protect people.

The information in our brains should be entitled to special protections in this era of ever-evolving engineering, Ienca told. When that starts, everything goes.

The intimated new rights insist what the researchers call cognitive sovereignty, mental privacy, mental integrity and psychological persistence. The first of issues of concern a persons liberty to application, or refuse to use, psyche stimulant and other techniques to adjust their mental condition. If borrowed, it could defend people against boss who choose their personnel might be more effective if they vaporized their brains with weak electrical currents. In November last year, US military scientists reported that a procedure called transcranial direct current stimulant( tDCS) boosted the mental skills of personnel. The devices are available on the free market, but there are concerns over safety issues.

The right to mental privacy is planning to plug a crack in existing legal and technical precautions that do nothing to prevent person from having their head read without approval. While modern brain scanners cannot pluck anticipates from a persons manager at will, a rise in the technology are expected to disclose ever more precise information about folks psyche activity. In 2011, scientists led by Jack Gallant at the University of California in Berkeley utilized brain scans to reconstruct clips of films people had watched beforehand.

Today, “there wasnt” firm rules on what psyche info can be gathered from people and with whom it can be shared. What Ienca and Andorno horror is the indiscriminate leakage of brain data across the infosphere, as happens now with the personal information people share on social media such as Facebook and Twitter.

The third right, to mental integrity, aims to defend against hackers who seek to interfere with psyche embeds, either to take control of the devices people are connected to, or to feed spurious signals into victims brains. The fourth right, embracing psychological persistence, would protect people from acts that could harm their appreciation of identity, or interrupts the sense of being the same person throughout their life.

The use of deep psyche stimulant, in which people have electrodes implanted deep into their brains to control Parkinsons symptoms and other conditions, have so far been raised concerns about its impact on patients personal identity, with some stating that they no longer feel like themselves after the surgery.

Ienca admits that it may seem a little early to worry about psyche hackers stealing our thoughts, but he said it was usually more effective to introduce shields for people sooner rather than subsequently. We cannot afford to have a lag before security measures are implemented, he told. Its always too early to assess a engineering until its abruptly too late.

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ science/ 2017/ apr/ 26/ new-human-rights-to-protect-against-mind-hacking-and-brain-data-theft-proposed

US launches probe into aluminium imports, citing security concerns

Trumps commerce chief Wilbur Ross invokes cold war constitution aimed at protecting high-grade smelting for defence industry

The Trump administration has launched an investigation into whether a inundate of aluminium imports from China and elsewhere is compromising US national protection, a step that could lead to broad-minded import restrictions on the metal.

The commerce secretary, Wilbur Ross, said the investigation was similar to one announced last week for steel imports into the US, as he invoked area 232 of their own nationals protection constitution extended in 1962 at the height of the Cold War.

Ross said the review was prompted by the extreme competitive pressures that unfairly traded imports were placing on the US aluminium industry, inducing several domestic smelters to close or halt production in recent years.

The move is the latest of several potential US actions aimed at stemming a rising tide of aluminium imports. The commerce department is analyse charges that Chinese corporations are dumping aluminium foil into the US market below cost and obtained from unjust subsidies.

One of Donald Trumps primary campaign promises was to introduce trade barriersin order to protect traditional industries such as steelmaking against inexpensive imports, especially from China.

Ross mentioned part of the justification for the investigation was that US combat aircraft such as the Lockheed Martin F-3 5 joint strike boxer and the Boeing F/ -A1 8 Super Hornet expect high-purity aluminium that is now produced only by the Century Aluminum smelter in Hawkesville, Kentucky.

He said that corporation could probably convened peacetime necessities, but not if the US required to ramp up defense production for fuelling conflict. The same high-purity aluminium goes into armor plating for military vehicles and naval vessels, he said.

At the very same occasion that our military is necessity more and more of the very high-quality aluminium, were making fewer and lower levels of everything, and simply have the one producer of aerospace- quality aluminium, Ross told a White House briefing.

The investigation will determine if there is sufficient domestic aluminium ability to encounter US defense needs and will also assess the effects of lost tasks, the competences and investments on national protection, Ross said.

Although he mentioned China was a major contributor to the world excess ability in aluminium production, he said imports from other countries, including Russia, were also inducing problems.

This is not a China-phobic program, this has to do with a world difficulty, Ross said.

Last-place November, a dozen US senators urged their own nationals security review of Chinese aluminium Zhongwang Internationals proposed $2.3 bn buy of Cleveland-based aluminium products producer Aleris.

The transaction is still pending, and a spokesman for Aleris could not be instantly reached for comment on the commerce department probe.

Read more: https :// www.theguardian.com/ us-news/ 2017/ apr/ 27/ us-launches-probe-into-aluminium-imports-citing-security-concerns